2and Assigment

  • Present Perfect

Present perfect tense is a tense that describes an event that occurred before a specific time in the past but still continues today. This tense consists of a combination of perfect aspects (before one specific time in the past) and present time frame. In addition, this tense can also describe an event that begins and ends in the past but the effect is still felt today. In short, this tense is used as a link between the past and the present.

FORMULA :

Form                             Formula present perfect                                  Examples sentence

Positif                 I/You/We/They + have + verb 3   They have lived in Jakarta for a long time         ( +)

He/She/It + has + verb               he has learned english for one year

Negative   (-)          I/You/We/They + have + not + verb 3     They have not lived in Jakarta for  a long time

He/She/It + has + not + verb 3     He has not learned English for oneyear

Interogatif         Have + I/You/We/They + verb 3?     Have they lived in Jakarta for a long time?

(?)                      Has + He/She/It + verb 3?          Has he learned English for one year?

 

  • Present Perfect Continous.

The Present Perfect Continuous tense is used to describe actions that have started in the past and are now continuing. These tenses are also used to describe events that began in the past and have just finished.

FORMULA :

(+) Bentuk positif

– Subject + has / have + been + verb-ing

Example :

  1. They have been working together since senior high school.

2. She has been working at that company for three years.

3. He has been working at that company for five years

 

(-) Bentuk negatif

– Subject + has / have + not + been + verb-ing.

Example :

  1. It has not been raining for three days

2. I have not been living in America since 2003.

 

(?) Bentuk interrogative

– Has/have + subject + been + verb-ing ?

Example :    

  1. Have you been eating this egg for an hour?

2. Has he been playing cricket for two hours?

 

  • Past Perfect

Past perfect a tense that describes an event that occurred before a specific time in the past and has been completed before anything else that happened in the past as well. This tense consists of a combination of perfect aspects (before one specific time in the past) and a past time frame (past).

FORMULA :

Form                                                Formula past perfect                Example sentence

Positif                                              Subjek +  had + verb 3                They had studied

(+)

Negatif                                             Subjek +  had + not + verb 3     They had not studied

(-)

Interogatif                                    Had+ subjek + verb 3?                    had they studied ?

 

  • Past Perfect Continous.

Past perfect continous Like past tense, this pattern is also to declare events that occurred in the past. But this tense is used to express an event that has been started and is in progress in the past but now it does not happen again.

FORMULA :

  1. Positif (+)

Subject + had + been + verb-ing + object

  1. Negatif (-)

Subject + had + not + been + verb-ing + object

  1. Tanya (?)

Had + subject + been + object ?

Example :

  1. He had been living in Jakarta about ten years (+)
  2. He had not been living in Jakarta about ten years (-)
  3. Had He been living in Jakarta about ten years ? (?)

 

SOURCE :

– Marjorie Fuchs, Bonner Margaret, Grammar Express for self study and classroom use , Addison Wesley Longman 2OO1

– Mega Bank of a grammer,Haira Rizka & Niswatin Nurul Hidayati 2017

 

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